How to Setup and Use Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio

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What is SSMS?

SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) is a free Windows application to configure, manage, and administer Microsoft SQL Server (MSSQL). SSMS includes an Object Explorer to view and interact with databases and other elements, a Query window to write and execute Transact-SQL queries, and script editors for developers and administrators. Continue reading “How to Setup and Use Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio”

Troubleshooting Microsoft SQL Server Error 18456, Login failed for user

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Login errors with Microsoft SQL Server (MSSQL) are a fairly common issue and can be easily solved with some basic troubleshooting steps. Before we dig in, let’s take a look at the details of the error to try and determine the cause.

connect to server error

Solutions to Microsoft SQL Server Error 18456

Sometimes, the error presents as “login failed for user ‘<username>’,” this information will help us as we identify the user we need to troubleshoot. From the message, we’ll know the error number as a reference to search for next steps. In this case, it is Microsoft SQL Server, Error: 18456.

Other times, we may only see “Microsoft SQL Server Error 18456” along with the severity and state number. On its own, a state number might not mean much, yet it can offer more details as to what is wrong and where to look next.

These states of the error, 18456, are the most common. The descriptions and potential solutions offer a quick explanation and potential troubleshooting guide.

mssql errors and potential solutions

Step 1:  Log In with Remote Desktop

The troubleshooting and solutions require you to login to the server or at least be able to make a Windows Authentication connection to MSSQL using Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio. The most common and easiest method is to connect directly to the server with a Remote Desktop Connection. If you need more information about Remote Desktop Connection, these Knowledge Base articles will help you get connected:

Step 2: Run Microsoft SQL Server Management

Once you are logged into the server, you’ll want to run Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS). SSMS is the tool best suited to configure, manage, and administer MSSQL.

mssql server management

When you start SSMS, you will be asked to log in to the server. By default, most MSSQL servers have Windows Authentication enabled, meaning you must log in with the Windows Administrator or the account specified as the SQL Administrator when MSSQL was installed and configured.

connect to mssql server

In addition to Windows Authentication, MSSQL supports SQL Server Authentication. Depending on the version of MSSQL and how it was installed and configured, you may or may not have SQL Server Authentication enabled by default.

Step 3: Checking the Server Authentication Mode

Once we login to SSMS using Windows Authentication, we need to check the security settings to confirm whether MSSQL is set up to allow both Windows and SQL Authentication.

In SSMS, right-click the Server Name at the top of the Object Explorer window and choose Properties.

Next, click the Security page.

mssql security properties

If you find Windows Authentication is the only mode configured, this is the likely cause of Error 18456, Login failed for user ‘<username>’.

Setting the Server authentication mode to allow SQL Server and Windows Authentication, you will be able to login to MS-SQL with a SQL user and password or a Windows user and password. After making this change, you will need to restart the SQL Server service.

 

Step 4: Restart the SQL Service

In SSMS, right-click the Server Name at the top of the Object Explorer window and choose Restart to apply the new authentication mode settings.  

In the above example, Windows Authentication mode was the only mode configured, and the Error 18456 occurred because the user ‘sa’ is a SQL user and SQL Server Authentication was not permitted.

 

Step 5: Checking SQL User Permissions

As we check the SQL user permissions, we need to answer the following questions:

  • Is the user allowed to log in?
  • Does the user have a valid password set up?
  • Does the user have the needed permissions for access to the desired database?

In SSMS Object Explorer, expand Security, Logins. Locate the user that was failing to log in. A red x on the user indicates this user has login disabled.

smss login properties

To allow the user to login, right-click the user and choose Properties, then click the Status page. Enabling login for the user and click OK.

enable login user properties

After refreshing the list user logins, we can confirm the user no longer has a red x present. This should allow the user to log in. In this example, the SQL user ‘sa’ failed to log in because there was no permission to log in. 

Continuing with user troubleshooting, right-click the user and choose Properties, then click the General page. Here you can enter a new password and then enter the confirmation password. Click OK to save the new password. We set a new password for the user so that we are certain of the password when we attempt to log in.

sa login user properties

Step 6: Mapping the User to the Database

Our last step in troubleshooting a user is to check user mapping to verify the user has access to the desired database and to set or verify their role for the database. Right-click the user and choose Properties, then click the User Mapping page. Select the Database from the list of databases. From the database role memberships, select the desired/required memberships. Click OK.

map user to mssql database

In this example, we mapped the user ‘ProdX709’ to the database Production X709.2019 and granted them database role db_owner. In many cases, you only need a user to have db_datareader and db_datawriter roles to be able to read and write to the database.

 

In this troubleshooting article, we learned how to identify specifics of Error 18456 to help us track down the root cause of the issue. Still looking for support?  Our MSSQL database solutions come with assistance from our technical support team. Find out how our high-availability database can work for you!

SQL Databases Migration with Command Line

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What if you have dozens of SQL databases and manually backing up/restoring each database is too time-consuming for your project? No problem! We can script out a method that will export and import all databases at once without needing manual intervention. For help with transferring SQL Logins and Stored Procedures & Views take a look at our MSSQL Migration with SSMS article. Continue reading “SQL Databases Migration with Command Line”

SQL Database Migration with SSMS

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Migrating MSSQL between servers can be challenging without the proper guidelines to keep you on track. In this article, I will be outlining the various ways to migrate Microsoft SQL Server databases between servers or instances. Whether you need to move a single database,  many databases, logins or stored procedures and views we have you covered!

There are many circumstances where you will need to move a database or restore databases. The most common reasons are:

 

  • Moving to an entirely new server.
  • Moving to a different instance of SQL.
  • Creating a development server or going live to a production server.
  • Restoring databases from a backup.

 

There are two main ways to move SQL databases. Manually with Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) or with the command line. The method you choose depends on what you need to accomplish. If you are moving a single database or just a few, manually backing up and restoring the databases with SSMS will be the easiest approach. If you are moving a lot of databases (think more than 10) then using the command line method will speed up the process. The command line method takes more prep work beforehand, but if you are transferring dozens of databases, then it is well worth the time spent configuring the script instead of migrating each database individually. If you aren’t sure which method to use, try the manual approach first while you get comfortable with the process. I recommend reading all the way through for a deeper understanding of the methodology.

 

Useful References for Terminology

SSMS – An acronym for Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio.

Source Server – The server or instance you are moving databases from or off.

Destination Server – The server or instance you are moving databases to.

 

Moving SQL databases with the manual method can be very easy. It is the preferred process for transferring a few or smaller databases. To follow this part of the guide, you must have MSSQL, and Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) installed.

 

1. Begin by logging into the Source server (the server you are moving databases from or off of). You will want to open Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio by selecting Start > Microsoft SQL Server >  Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio.

2.Log into the SQL server using Windows Authentication or SQL Authentication.

3. Expand the server(in our case SQL01), expand Databases, select the first database you want to move (pictured below).

Select your database within Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio.

4. Right click on your database and select Tasks then click Back Up.

Back up button in Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio.

5. From here you are now at the Back Up Database screen. You can choose a Backup Type such as Full or Differential, make sure the correct database is selected, and set the destination for the SQL backup. For our example, we can leave the Backup Type as Full.

6. Under Backup Type, check the box for “Copy-only backup.” If you are running DPM or another form of server backup, backing up without the Copy-Only flag will cause a break in the backup log chain.

7. You will see a location under Destination for the path of the new backup. Typically you will Remove this entry then Add a new one to select a folder that SQL has read/write access. Adding a new Backup Destination shows a path similar to the following:

C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL13.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\Backup\

This C:\ path is where your stored database backup is. Note this location for later reference, as this is the default path to stored backups and will have to have proper read/write access for SQL services.

Note:
Advanced users may be comfortable leaving the destination as is, provided the permissions are correct on the output folder.

8. Next, append a filename to the end of this path such as AdventureWorks2012-081418.bak – Be sure to end the filename with the extension .bak and select OKSet the file name with the .bak extension in Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio

10. Once you have pressed OK on the Select Backup Destination prompt, you are ready to back up the database! All you need to do now is hit OK, and the database will begin backing up. You will see a progress bar in the bottom left-hand corner, and when the backup is complete, a window will appear saying ‘The backup of database ‘AdventureWorks2012’ completed successfully.

Navigate to the destination path, noted earlier, (in this case C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL13.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\Backup\) you will see your newly created file (in this case AdventureWorks2012-081418.bak) – Congratulations! This file is the full export of your database and is ready to be imported to the new server.  If you have more databases, then repeat the steps above for each database you are moving. After copying all database process to the next step of restoring databases to the destination server.

 

You should now have a .bak file of all your databases on the source server. These database files need to be transferred to the destination server. There are numerous ways to move your data to the destination server; you can use USB, Robocopy or FTP. After copying a database you can store it on your destination server,  for our example, we have stored it on the C drive in a folder named C:\dbbackups .

1. Open Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio.

2. Log in to the SQL server using Windows Authentication or SQL Authentication.

3. Expand the server and right click on Databases and select Restore Database.

4. The Restore Database screen looks very similar to the Back Up Database screen.Under Source, you will want to select Device instead of Database. Selecting Device allows you to restore directly from a file. Once you’ve chosen Device, click the browse icon […]

5. Select Add, then navigate to the folder in which your .bak files lives. (In this case, C:\dbbackups).

6. Select the first database .bak you would like to restore and click OK.

Select the .bak file to import your database into the destination server via SSMS.

7. Click OK and now you are ready to import the database. Before importing, let’s take a look at the Options section on the left-hand side. Under Options, you will see other configurations for restoring databases such as Overwrite the Existing Database, Preserve the Replication Settings and Restrict Access to the Restored DatabaseIn this case, we are not replacing an existing database so I will leave all these options unchecked. If you wanted to replace an existing database (for example, the backed up database has newer data than on the destination server or you are replacing a development or production database) then simply select Overwrite the Existing Database.

Note:
Advanced users may be comfortable leaving the destination as is, provided the permissions are correct on the output folder.

8. Clicking OK  begins the restore process as indicated by the popup window that reads ‘Database ‘AdventureWorks2012′ restored successfully.’ You have migrated your database from the source to the destination server.

Repeat this process for each database that you are migrating. You can then update path references in your scripts/application to point to the new server, verify that the migration was successful.

 

After importing your databases if you are unable to connect using your SQL login, you may receive the error ‘Login failed for user ‘example.’ (Microsoft SQL Server, Error: 18456).‘ Because the database is in the Traditional Login and User Model, logins are stored separately in the source server and credentials are not contained within the database itself. From this point on, the destination server can be configured to use the Contained Database User Model which keeps the logins in your database and out of the source server. (You can read more about this here.)Until then, we will have to move and interact with the users as part of the Traditional model. Continue below to proceed with the migration of your SQL users.

Backing up and restoring the databases did move your SQL logins relation to the databases (your logins are still associated with the correct databases with the correct permissions) but the actual logins itself did not transfer to the new server.  You can verify this by opening SSMS on the destination server and navigating to Server > Security > Logins. You will notice that any custom SQL logins you created on the previous server did not transfer over here, but if you go to Server > Databases > Your Database (AdventureWorks2012 in this case) > Security > Users you’ll see the correct login associated with the database.

If you have one or two SQL users, you can just delete the user’s association to the database in Servers > Databases > AdventureWorks2012 > Security > Users, re-create the user in Server > Security > Logins and map it to the proper database.

If you have a lot of logins, you will have to follow an additional process outlined below. To migrate all SQL users, open a New Query window on the source server and run the following script:

SQL Login Script
USE master
GO
IF OBJECT_ID ('sp_hexadecimal') IS NOT NULL
DROP PROCEDURE sp_hexadecimal
GO
CREATE PROCEDURE sp_hexadecimal
@binvalue varbinary(256),
@hexvalue varchar (514) OUTPUT
AS
DECLARE @charvalue varchar (514)
DECLARE @i int
DECLARE @length int
DECLARE @hexstring char(16)
SELECT @charvalue = '0x'
SELECT @i = 1
SELECT @length = DATALENGTH (@binvalue)
SELECT @hexstring = '0123456789ABCDEF'
WHILE (@i <= @length)
BEGIN
DECLARE @tempint int
DECLARE @firstint int
DECLARE @secondint int
SELECT @tempint = CONVERT(int, SUBSTRING(@binvalue,@i,1))
SELECT @firstint = FLOOR(@tempint/16)
SELECT @secondint = @tempint - (@firstint*16)
SELECT @charvalue = @charvalue +
SUBSTRING(@hexstring, @firstint+1, 1) +
SUBSTRING(@hexstring, @secondint+1, 1)
SELECT @i = @i + 1
END
SELECT @hexvalue = @charvalue
GO
IF OBJECT_ID ('sp_help_revlogin') IS NOT NULL
DROP PROCEDURE sp_help_revlogin
GO
CREATE PROCEDURE sp_help_revlogin @login_name sysname = NULL AS
DECLARE @name sysname
DECLARE @type varchar (1)
DECLARE @hasaccess int
DECLARE @denylogin int
DECLARE @is_disabled int
DECLARE @PWD_varbinary varbinary (256)
DECLARE @PWD_string varchar (514)
DECLARE @SID_varbinary varbinary (85)
DECLARE @SID_string varchar (514)
DECLARE @tmpstr varchar (1024)
DECLARE @is_policy_checked varchar (3)
DECLARE @is_expiration_checked varchar (3)
DECLARE @defaultdb sysname
IF (@login_name IS NULL)
DECLARE login_curs CURSOR FOR
SELECT p.sid, p.name, p.type, p.is_disabled, p.default_database_name, l.hasaccess, l.denylogin FROM
sys.server_principals p LEFT JOIN sys.syslogins l
ON ( l.name = p.name ) WHERE p.type IN ( 'S', 'G', 'U' ) AND p.name <> 'sa'
ELSE
DECLARE login_curs CURSOR FOR
SELECT p.sid, p.name, p.type, p.is_disabled, p.default_database_name, l.hasaccess, l.denylogin FROM
sys.server_principals p LEFT JOIN sys.syslogins l
ON ( l.name = p.name ) WHERE p.type IN ( 'S', 'G', 'U' ) AND p.name = @login_name
OPEN login_curs
FETCH NEXT FROM login_curs INTO @SID_varbinary, @name, @type, @is_disabled, @defaultdb, @hasaccess, @denylogin
IF (@@fetch_status = -1)
BEGIN
PRINT 'No login(s) found.'
CLOSE login_curs
DEALLOCATE login_curs
RETURN -1
END
SET @tmpstr = '/* sp_help_revlogin script '
PRINT @tmpstr
SET @tmpstr = '** Generated ' + CONVERT (varchar, GETDATE()) + ' on ' + @@SERVERNAME + ' */'
PRINT @tmpstr
PRINT ''
WHILE (@@fetch_status <> -1)
BEGIN
IF (@@fetch_status <> -2)
BEGIN
PRINT ''
SET @tmpstr = '-- Login: ' + @name
PRINT @tmpstr
IF (@type IN ( 'G', 'U'))
BEGIN -- NT authenticated account/group
SET @tmpstr = 'CREATE LOGIN ' + QUOTENAME( @name ) + ' FROM WINDOWS WITH DEFAULT_DATABASE = [' + @defaultdb + ']'
END
ELSE BEGIN -- SQL Server authentication
-- obtain password and sid
SET @PWD_varbinary = CAST( LOGINPROPERTY( @name, 'PasswordHash' ) AS varbinary (256) )
EXEC sp_hexadecimal @PWD_varbinary, @PWD_string OUT
EXEC sp_hexadecimal @SID_varbinary,@SID_string OUT
-- obtain password policy state
SELECT @is_policy_checked = CASE is_policy_checked WHEN 1 THEN 'ON' WHEN 0 THEN 'OFF' ELSE NULL END FROM sys.sql_logins WHERE name = @name
SELECT @is_expiration_checked = CASE is_expiration_checked WHEN 1 THEN 'ON' WHEN 0 THEN 'OFF' ELSE NULL END FROM sys.sql_logins WHERE name = @name
SET @tmpstr = 'CREATE LOGIN ' + QUOTENAME( @name ) + ' WITH PASSWORD = ' + @PWD_string + ' HASHED, SID = ' + @SID_string + ', DEFAULT_DATABASE = [' + @defaultdb + ']'
IF ( @is_policy_checked IS NOT NULL )
BEGIN
SET @tmpstr = @tmpstr + ', CHECK_POLICY = ' + @is_policy_checked
END
IF ( @is_expiration_checked IS NOT NULL )
BEGIN
SET @tmpstr = @tmpstr + ', CHECK_EXPIRATION = ' + @is_expiration_checked
END
END
IF (@denylogin = 1)
BEGIN -- login is denied access
SET @tmpstr = @tmpstr + '; DENY CONNECT SQL TO ' + QUOTENAME( @name )
END
ELSE IF (@hasaccess = 0)
BEGIN -- login exists but does not have access
SET @tmpstr = @tmpstr + '; REVOKE CONNECT SQL TO ' + QUOTENAME( @name )
END
IF (@is_disabled = 1)
BEGIN -- login is disabled
SET @tmpstr = @tmpstr + '; ALTER LOGIN ' + QUOTENAME( @name ) + ' DISABLE'
END
PRINT @tmpstr
END
FETCH NEXT FROM login_curs INTO @SID_varbinary, @name, @type, @is_disabled, @defaultdb, @hasaccess, @denylogin
END
CLOSE login_curs
DEALLOCATE login_curs
RETURN 0
GO

This script creates two stored procedures in the source database which helps with migrating these logins. Open a New Query window and run the following:
EXEC sp_help_revlogin

This query outputs a script that creates new logins for the destination server. Copy the output of this query and save it for later. You will need to run this on the destination server.

Once you’ve copied the output of this query, login to SSMS on the destination server and open a New Query window. Paste the contents from the previous script (it should have a series of lines that look similar to — Login: BUILTIN\Administrators
CREATE LOGIN [BUILTIN\Administrators] FROM WINDOWS WITH DEFAULT_DATABASE = [master]) and hit Execute.

You have now successfully imported all SQL logins and can now verify that the databases have been migrated to the destination server by using your previous credentials.

Views and stored procedures will migrate with the database if you are using the typical SQL Tape backups. Follow the instructions below if you need to migrate views and stored procedures independently.

  1. Open Microsoft SQL Management Studio on the Source server.
  2. Log in to your SQL server.
  3. Expand the server and as well as Databases.
  4. Right click on the name of your database and go to Tasks > Generate Scripts.
  5. Click Next.
  6. We will change Script entire database and all database objects to Select specific database objects and only check Views and Stored Procedures.Transfer Stored Procedures and Views within Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio
  7. Click Next, notice the Save to File option. Take note of the file path listed. In my case, it is C:\Users\Administrator\Documents\script.sql – The path of saved views and stored procedures.
  8. Click Next >> Next >>Finish, and select C:\Users\Administrator\Documents\script.sql and copy it to the destination server.
  9. Go to the destination server, open SSMS and log in to the SQL server.
  10. Go to File > Open > File or use the keyboard shortcut CTRL+O to open the SQL script. Select the file C:\Users\Administrator\Documents\script.sql to open it.
  11. You will see the script generated from the source server containing all views and stored procedures. Click Execute or use the keyboard shortcut F5 and run the script.
Note:
Unfortunately, there is no built-in way to do this with the command line. There are 3rd party tools and even a tool by Microsoft called mssql-scripter for more advanced scripting.

You have now migrated the views and stored procedures to your destination server! Repeat this process for each database you are migrating. A little guidance goes a long way in database administration. Every SQL server will have it’s own configurations and obstacles to face but we hope this article has given you a strong foundation for your Microsoft SQL Server Migration.

Looking for a High Availability, platform-independent SQL service that is easily scalable and can grow with your business? Check out our SQL as a Service product offered at Liquid Web. Speak with one of our amazing Hosting Advisers to find the perfect solution for you!

 

Installing SQL Express

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MSSQL Express 2017 on a Dedicated Server

Microsoft SQL Server is a powerful database that is commonly used with ASP.NET and other website programming languages. However, licensing for MSSQL can be expensive and is sometimes prohibitive for smaller businesses and applications. Fortunately, Microsoft provides a free version of MSSQL server called MSSQL Express. Installing MSSQL Express on your dedicated server is quick and easy, especially with the new features included in MSSQL Express 2017.

Continue reading “Installing SQL Express”

Choosing Your Cloud Sites Technology Setup

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Behind Cloud Sites, racks full of both Linux and Windows servers power over 100,000 sites and applications. Every Windows-based page is served from clusters built and optimized especially for Windows, and every Linux-based page is served from clusters built and optimized especially for Linux. We use advanced load balancing technologies to automatically detect the type of technology you are running and route each request to the proper pool of servers.

This is a great example of the power of cloud computing, since you no longer have to make a hosting choice between Linux and Windows. Both PHP and .NET are included, allowing you to choose the technology you need site by site.
Continue reading “Choosing Your Cloud Sites Technology Setup”